Lisabeth DiLalla

Family & Community Medicine, Southern Illinois University Carbondale United States
{{numberWithCommas(50)}} Publications

Evidence for reliability and validity of parent reports of twin children’s birth information

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to assess the reliability and validity of birth information provided by parents and to determine if the age of the child affects the reliability of information collected. This study used data from 105 families of typically developing twin and triplet children whose parents provided this information as part of a larger survey. Families originally participated in a longitudinal study at least once when children were between the ages of 1 and 5 years and were re-tested at least once subsequently between the ages of 2 and 17 years. A subset of 57 families (mean age = 2.58 years, sd = 2.41) also released hospital birth information to compare to parent report to assess validity. Repeated measures MANCOVAs were used to test for significant differences between parent reports at each time point. No differences were found between parent reports provided at different points in time regardless of the age of the child when reports were collected or length of time between collections. Thus, the method of using parent reports to collect data on neonatal birth complications appears to show acceptable test-retest reliability. Correlation analyses comparing parent reports to hospital records showed that parent reports were highly valid, with all correlations highly significant except minor birth complication scores for second born children. These findings have far-reaching implications for data collection in research and clinical work because they suggest that obtaining parent reports of birth complications, even many years after birth, is an acceptable method for assessing this information.

A Genetically‐Informed Examination of the Relations between Inaccurate Emotion Expression and Recognition and Experiencing Peer Victimization

Abstract This study examines children's abilities to accurately portray emotions (emotion expression; EE) and to read others' emotions (emotion recognition; ER) as possible genetically‐influenced behaviors that may increase vulnerability to victimization. In this study of 127 6‐ to 10‐year‐old multiples, children were assessed for EE accuracy by being photographed when told to display different emotions; photographs were subsequently rated for emotion accuracy. Children also were assessed for ER accuracy on a computer task by rating the emotions of displayed children's faces. Genetic likelihood scores for angry and fearful EE and ER errors were calculated. Children also completed a victimization questionnaire. Results showed that children who were poor at making angry faces (EE angry misses) were less likely to be victimized, and children who were more likely to rate faces as fearful (ER fearful biases) were more likely to be victimized. ER fearful biases were related to victimization through a shared genetic link. Finally, demonstrating gene‐environment correlation, girls with a genetic likelihood for not looking fearful when they were intending to (EE fearful misses) were significantly less likely to be victimized by peers. These results show that emotion skills surrounding expressing and recognizing anger and fear are associated with peer victimization risk. Social Development, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.

Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira

Mapping scientific research on the negative aspects of the medical school learning environment

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the landscape of published articles regarding medical schools’ learning environments (LE) worldwide, with an explicit focus on potentially harmful aspects of the LE as an effort to identify areas specifically in need of remediation or intervention that could prevent future unprofessional behaviors, burnout, violence and mistreatment among students and physicians. METHODS: A bibliometric analysis was conducted in six electronic databases (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, ERIC-ProQuest, and PsycINFO) up to December 31, 2016, including 12 themes: learning environment – general, hidden curriculum (harmful), unethical behaviors, bullying/hazing, violence, sexual discrimination, homophobia, racism, social discrimination, minorities discrimination, professional misconduct, and other negative aspects. RESULTS: Of the 9,338 articles found, 710 met the inclusion criteria. The most common themes were general LE (233 articles), unprofessional behaviors (91 articles), and sexual discrimination (80 articles). Approximately 80% of articles were published in the 21st century. CONCLUSION: There is a definite increase in scientific articles on negative aspects of the medical school LE in high-quality journals, especially in the 21st century. However, more studies are needed to investigate negative LE aspects with greater attention to experimental, longitudinal, and cross-cultural study designs.

Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira

Mapping the scientific research on the negative aspects of the medical school learning environment

SUMMARY Objective: We sought to understand the landscape of published articles regarding medical schools’ learning environments (LE) worldwide, with an explicit focus on potentially negative aspects of the LE as an effort to identify areas specifically in need of remediation or intervention that could prevent future unprofessional behaviours, burnout, violence and mistreatment among students and physicians. Methods: A bibliometric analysis was conducted in six electronic databases (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, ERIC-ProQuest and PsycINFO) through December 31, 2016, including 12 themes: learning environment - general, hidden curriculum (negative), unethical behaviours, bullying/hazing, violence, sexual discrimination, homophobia, racism, social discrimination, minorities’ discrimination, professional misconduct, and "other" negative aspects. Results: Of 9,338 articles found, 710 met the inclusion criteria. The most common themes were general LE (233 articles), unprofessional behaviours (91 articles), and sexual discrimination (80 articles). Approximately 80% of articles were published in the 21st century. Conclusion: There is a clear increase in scientific articles on negative aspects of the medical school LE in high-quality journals, especially in the 21st century. However, more studies are needed to investigate negative LE aspects with greater attention paid to experimental, longitudinal, and cross-cultural study designs.

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