Molecular Basis of the Therapeutical Potential of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) and Clues to Its Anti-COVID-19 Utility

Lay Summary

This is an important work collecting the known data on anti-inflammatory, antiviral and other therapeutic properties of clove plant (buds and oil) useful against COVID-19 disease 

Very recent references to clove application in treatment of respiratory ailments related to COVID-19, alongside with an experimental protocol in use in Asia for COVID-19 therapy are reported

Abstract

The current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is enormously affecting the worldwide health and economy. In the wait for an effective global immunization, the development of a specific therapeutic protocol to treat COVID-19 patients is clearly necessary as a short-term solution of the problem. Drug repurposing and herbal medicine represent two of the most explored strategies for an anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a well-known culinary spice that has been used for centuries in folk medicine in many disorders. Interestingly, traditional medicines have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory ailments, whilst clove ingredients show antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Other interesting features are the clove antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects. Thus, in this review, we discuss the potential role of clove in the frame of anti-COVID-19 therapy, focusing on the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects of clove and its molecular constituents described in the scientific literature.

Graphical Abstract
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