Short‐term clinical risk assessment and management: Comparing the Brockville Risk Checklist and Hamilton Anatomy of Risk Management

Transnational Economic Clusters ‐ The Case of the Iberian Peninsula

Estimated biomass carbon in thinned Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations at different stand-ages

Abstract Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolate [Lamb.] Hook.) is a fast-growing species which is not only important as a timber-supplier, but also as an available sink for carbon (C) storage in biomass. Stand age and density are two critical factors that can determine tree C sequestration as interrelated drivers through natural self-thinning. C. lanceolate were planted using 1-year-old bare-root seedlings at the initial density of 1800 stems ha−1 in a 15-ha montane area of Hunan Province, China in 1987. The plantation was thinned twice 10 and 20 years after planting to leave trees of 437.5 ± 26.6, 675.0 ± 155.2 and 895.8 ± 60.1 stems ha−1 as low, medium, and high densities, respectively. Tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured every 2 years beginning from 23 years (2009) to 31 years (2018) after establishment, timber volume (TV) and biomass C were estimated accordingly. We did not find any interactive effect of age and density on any variables except for height. Both TV and biomass C increased with stand age or decreased in higher densities. The allometric height-DBH relationship can be fitted by an exponential rising-to-maximum model with higher maximum value over time. The decline of biomass C along density fit with the inverse first-order polynomial model which indicated that at least 1300–1500 stems ha−1 may be needed to maximize TV and biomass C for a longer term over 20 years. Therefore, to control the density to a reasonable level, over 1300 stems ha−1 in a rotation over 20 years old will be practical for tree biomass C in Chinese fir plantations.

Long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser equipped with a sapphire handpiece: unwanted hair removal in darker phototypes

Biological Responses to Hydrogen Molecule and its Preventive Effects on Inflammatory Diseases

: Because multicellular organisms do not have hydrogenase, H2 has been considered to be biologically inactive in these species, and enterobacteria to be largely responsible for the oxidation of H2 taken into the body. However, we showed previously that inhalation of H2 markedly suppresses brain injury induced by focal ischemia–reperfusion by buffering oxidative stress. Although the reaction constant of H2 with hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution is two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional antioxidants, we showed that hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction reacts with H2 at room temperature without a catalyst. Suppression of hydroxyl radical by H2 has been applied in ophthalmic surgery. However, many of the anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects of H2 cannot be completely explained by its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species. H2 administration is protective in several disease models, and preculture in the presence of H2 suppresses oxidative stress-induced cell death. Specifically, H2 administration induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and activates Nrf2; this phenomenon, in which mild mitochondrial stress leaves the cell less susceptible to subsequent perturbations, is called mitohormesis. Based on these findings, we conclude that crosstalk between antioxidative stress pathways and the anti-inflammatory response is the most important molecular mechanism involved in the protective function of H2 , and that regulation of the immune system underlies H2 efficacy. For further medical applications of H2 , it will be necessary to identify the biomolecule on which H2 first acts.

Role of Molecular Hydrogen in Skin Diseases and its Impact in Beauty

: In today’s society, healthy skin and a beautiful appearance are considered the foundation of general well-being. The skin is the largest organ of the body and plays an important role in protecting it against various factors such as environmental, physical, chemical, and biological hazards. These factors include mediators that lead to oxidation reactions that produce reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and additional oxidants in the skin cells. An increase in oxidants beyond the antioxidant capacity of its defense system causes oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in the body. This response can cause further disruption of collagen fibers and hinder the functioning of skin cells that may result in the development of various skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and aging. In this review, we summarized the present information related to the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of dermatological disorders, and its impact on physical beauty and the daily lives of patients. We also discussed how molecular hydrogen exhibits a therapeutic effect against skin diseases via its effects on oxidative stress. Furthermore, findings from this summary review indicate that molecular hydrogen might be an effective treatment modality for the prevention and treatment of skin-related illnesses.

A Glassy Carbon Electrode for The Determination of Linagliptin Antidiabetic Drug in Pure, tablets and some biological fluids by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

Aim: The present work provides a fast, simple, accurate, and inexpensive analytical method for the determination of Linagliptin (anti-diabetic drug). Methods: Using a square wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetric technique (SWAASV) and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as a working electrode. The experimental and instrumental parameters were studied and discussed to ensure the validity of the method. Results: The method has a very good linearity (R2 = 0.9984), wide concentration range (0.189 - 2.268) µg mL -1 ), low detection limit 0.052 µg mL -1 and low quantitation limit 0.172 µg mL -1 . Conclusion: Linagliptin was determined successfully in pharmaceutical form, spiked urine and plasma with 99.67, 91.96, and 92.78 % recovery respectively by using the proposed method, and the results obtained were compared with other reported methods.